FIGURE 1. Working memory difficulties are commonly associated with learning difficulties and developmental disorders. *Correspondence: Aini Ismafairus Abd Hamid, aini_ismafairus@usm.my, Front. Joseph, J. E., Swearingen, J. E., Corbly, C. R., Curry, T. E., and Kelly, T. H. (2012). Psychol. Flashing colored squares Luck and his colleagues used a working memory test they developed that asks subjects to recall the color of one of several colored squares flashed on a computer screen a few seconds before. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males. (2013). In addition, investigation of the effective connectivity of moderate and severe TBI participants during a working memory task revealed that the VMPFC influenced the ACC in these TBI participants when the opposite was observed in healthy subjects (Dobryakova et al., 2015). A general decrease in working memory (WM) is one of the limitations, although some studies have found that working memory is not impaired in autistic children relative to controls matched for IQ. For example, in the visuo-spatial 2-back task by Dong, Liu, and Cai (2018), which was adapted from Soveri, Rodriguez-Fornells, and Laine (2011), a square was presented in one of 25 possible locations on the screen, and participants were asked to determine whether the location of the current square matched the location of the square before the previous one (2-back).b. Psychiatry Clin. (1960). doi: 10.1007/s00406-014-0517-5, Treble, A., Hasan, K. M., Iftikhar, A., Stuebing, K. K., Kramer, L. A., Cox, C. S., et al. Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: immediate training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance. As Dowker and Nuerk (2016) acknowledge, it has been known for at least 35 years that verbal working memory is associated with mental arithmetic (Ashcraft & Stazyk, 1981). doi: 10.1080/87565640701376045, Manktelow, A. E., Menon, D. K., Sahakian, B. J., and Stamatakis, E. A. Another explanation attempting to answer the increase in gamma connectivity in these groups was the involvement of the neural compensatory mechanism after TBI to improve performance (Bailey et al., 2017). Particularly, the caudate and thalamus were activated during task encoding, and the medial thalamus during the maintenance phase, while recorded activity in the fronto-parietal network, which includes the DLPFC and the parietal lobules, was observed only during retrieval (Moore et al., 2013). A 49, 5–28. Neuropsychologia 41, 1599–1610. doi: 10.1037/10039-000, Miyake, A., and Shah, P. (eds). doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.06.026, Kovacs, K., and Conway, A. R. A. In clinical situations in which the visual modality is impaired, the AWMI allows better evaluation of working memory functions than the WMI. (2017) in which the amygdala was found to play a bigger role in emotional working memory tasks among older participants as opposed to being suppressed as reported by Oren et al. However, if she can be allowed to choose the meaning among different possibilities rather than having to recall it, she may turn in somewhat stronger performance as her performance on such a task was improved relative to the free recall condition. Chapter 7 by Wicha et al. 29, 467–477. It is, however, to be noted that the working memory performance of those displaying minimal cognitive deterioration was maintained even though their brain imaging uncovered weaker brain activation in a more restricted area (Haller et al., 2017). Participants are asked to judge the direction of the central arrow, and press one of the two designated keys corresponding to the two possible directions (left or right). Child Psychol. The finding that estradiol levels modified brain recruitment patterns at the neurobiological level, which could indirectly affect working memory performance, presents implications that working memory impairment reported in post-menopausal women (older aged women) could indicate a link with estradiol loss (Joseph et al., 2012). (2016), it was shown that processing speed mediated TBI effects on working memory even though the mediation was partial. “Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control,” in The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, ed. 125, 316–323. Conversely, interventions aimed at phenotypical (e.g., attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and peripheral symptoms (social skill deficits) should result in limited success and bear no impact on foundational learning deficits that rely heavily on WM. 13, 770–780. Brain Inj. These brain activity variations that translated to differences in overt performances between healthily developing individuals and those with atypical development highlighted the need for intervention and attention for the disadvantaged groups. Not surprisingly, many supporting research studies have pointed to the fronto-parietal network involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the parietal cortex (PAR) as the working memory neural network (Osaka et al., 2003; Owen et al., 2005; Chein et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2015). The visual sketchpad allows people to keep visual images and spatial information active in the mind for problem-solving. No consensus has been reached, however, among the few empirical studies (e.g., Gooch, Thompson, Nash, Snowling, & Hulme, 2016; Kuhn et al., 2014) investigating the relationship between cognitive control and language skills Kuhn et al. Rev. In the diseased brain, low activation has often been associated with impaired cognitive function (Chen et al., 2012; Dobryakova et al., 2015; Wylie et al., 2015). Neuropsychol. 38, 262–276. Importantly, this effect only emerges for negative, but not positive content (see also Joormann & D’Avanzato, 2010; Kaiser, Andrews-Hanna, Metcalf, & Dimidjian, 2015). Brain Mapp. 25, 46–59. 38, 262–279. Impaired working-memory after cerebellar infarcts paralleled by changes in bold signal of a cortico-cerebellar circuit. Nevertheless, the adoption of different modalities yielded diverging outcomes and knowledge such as behavioral performances, functional segregation and integration in the brain, white matter integrity, brainwave coherence, and oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations that are undeniably useful in application to different fields of study. It makes sense of a range of tasks - verbal reasoning, comprehension, reading, problem-solving and visual and spatial processing. This type of memory is especially relevant to learning to read, write, and do math, because all of these skills involve learning systems of symbols that are assigned meanings. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2. Brain Lang. In theory, the neural efficiency hypothesis explains that increased efficiency of the neural processes recruit fewer cerebral resources in addition to displaying lower activation in the involved neural network (Vartanian et al., 2013; Rodriguez Merzagora et al., 2014). (2007) reported impairments in the working memory updating domain that came with high executive demands for TBI patients. Hum. Similar to the development of language abilities, cognitive control skills take time to develop. (2011). This finding went in the opposite direction of that observed in the younger group in which the amygdala was strongly activated with less functional connections to the bilateral MFG and left PAR (Oren et al., 2017). Sex differences in working memory after mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MR imaging study. Typical tasks to test the core functions of cognitive control have been designed and accepted in the literature. Moreover, another extensive study that examined cognitive functions of participants across the lifespan using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reported that the right lateralized fronto-parietal regions in addition to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, and left angular and middle frontal gyri (the default mode regions) in older adults showed reduced modulation of task difficulty, which was reflective of poorer task performance (Rieck et al., 2017). doi: 10.1002/hbm.22382, Dobryakova, E., Boukrina, O., and Wylie, G. R. (2015). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in survivors of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. As for the WCST, participants are asked to match a response card popped out with one of the four stimulus cards on the screen. Dir. Psychol. 5, 433–441. Psychiatry 75, 1524–1531. In summary, the present article offers an account of working memory from the psychological and neuroscientific perspectives, in which theoretical models of working memory are presented, and neural patterns and brain regions engaging in working memory are discussed among healthy and diseased brains. (2017). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company. Before vaccination and other intervention measures become available, successful containment of an unknown infectious disease critically relies on people’s voluntary compliance with the recommended social-distancing guidelines. Definition: Working Memory is the active maintenance and flexible updating of goal/task relevant information (items, goals, strategies, etc.) Thus, the concept of working memory that shares similarities with short-term memory but attempts to address the oversimplification of short-term memory by introducing the role of information manipulation has emerged (Baddeley, 2012). “The time-based resource-sharing model of working memory,” in The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory, ed. Neuroscience makes a clear distinction between the two. J. Verbal Learn. However, while studies using such simplified stimuli have provided critical insights into the structure of the working memory system and the nature of its capacity, they also leave out many important aspects of visual memory in the real world. (2017) in which differential functional networks relating to emotional working memory task were employed by the two studied groups: (1) younger (Mage = 22.6) and (2) older (Mage = 68.2) adults. The Four Components of the WMM. Furthermore, children's cognitive control is more reactive (as responses to the environment), while the cognitive control of older children and adults is more anticipatory and proactive (e.g., Munakata, Snyder, & Chatham, 2012). 18, 29–38. The role of amygdala engagement in processing only negative items in the younger adults, but both negative and positive distractors in the older adults, could be reflective of the older adults’ better ability at regulating negative emotions which might subsequently provide a better platform for monitoring working memory performance and efficacy as compared to their younger counterparts (Ziaei et al., 2017). Ping Li, Yanping Dong, in Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2020. A simplified summary of recent studies on working memory and TBI is tabulated in Table 4. Clinicians will likely use one or more working memory available on the WISC-V in most clinical evaluations. Simply reversing the order and adding a few spaces yields just six familiar chunks—IBM ATT NBC HGTV CBS FOX. (2011), elevated task-related connectivity in the right hemisphere, in particular the prefrontal cortex, was consistently demonstrated during a working memory task while the control group showed greater left hemispheric activation. Neurosci. Inhibitory control, on the other hand, is what we need if we have to inhibit or resist habitual responses or external lures. Not all cognitive training programs are equal. Cognitive tests such as Raven’s Progressive Matrices or other similar intelligence tests that demand complex cognition and were reported in the paper had been found to correlate strongly with tests of working memory (Kovacs and Conway, 2016). On parent and teacher rating scales, high scores on attention problems or academic issues will indicate that working memory measures should administered. Neurosci. Learn. Short and long-term memory suggest that the difference between the two lies in the period that the encoded information is retained. The general consensus regarding working memory supports the idea that working memory is extensively involved in goal-directed behaviors in which information must be retained and manipulated to ensure successful task execution. Aging 53, 93–102. Bilateral basal ganglia activity in verbal working memory. In Baddeley’s model (2009, 2012) of working memory, there are three main functional components: the phonological loop, visual sketchpad, and the central executive. Prog. Aging also appears to have modulatory effects on working memory; age interactions with emotion, caffeine and hormones appear to affect working memory performances at the neurobiological level. Aging 23, 720–730. (2007). For instance, though both are n-back tasks that includes the same working memory domains, the auditory n-back differs than the visual n-back as the information is presented in different forms. Clin. 23, 172–178. doi: 10.1038/nrn1323, Heinzel, S., Rimpel, J., Stelzel, C., and Rapp, M. A. The primary WMI is comprised of Digit Span and Picture Span, which are auditory and visual working memory tasks, respectively. The functional WM model of ADHD conceptualizes WM as a core deficit and endophenotype and provides a framework for investigating ADHD-related WM deficits (see Fig. This was reflected in the diminished activation in the schizophrenia group’s ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the PPC that were said to play a role in manipulation and reorganization of information during encoding and maintenance of information after encoding (Grot et al., 2017). (2003) concluded that deficits were not related to time estimation but more on generalized attentional control, working memory and processing speed problems; while Gorman et al. Participants have to guess the current rule of sorting (e.g., match the response card with a stimulus card by their shared color, shape or number), and adjust their rule in their next trial according the “correct or wrong” feedback they receive. 8, 47–89. In addition, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) displayed weaker performance in the working memory updating domain in which information manipulation was needed when completing a visual working memory task (Le et al., 2017). (2017). (2017). Sci. Psychol. Acute caffeine administration impact on working memory-related brain activation and functional connectivity in the elderly: a BOLD and perfusion MRI study. Donald H. Saklofske, ... Lawrence G. Weiss, in WISC-V (Second Edition), 2019. One was a short-term store capable of holding small amounts of information for a few seconds. These studies all reported working memory impairment of different domains such as attentional control, executive functions, or verbal and visuospatial working memory in the TBI group, especially for children with severe TBI (Mandalis et al., 2007; Nadebaum et al., 2007; Gorman et al., 2012). Trends Cogn. (2015). Timothy F. Brady, ... Hayden M. Schill, in Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2019. (2004) found that working memory was impaired in the TBI group only when complex manipulation such as sequential coding of information is required and not accounted for by processing speed or maintenance of information, but two teams of researchers (Perbal et al., 2003; Gorman et al., 2012) suggested otherwise. This is supported in studies employing neuropsychological testing to assess cognitive impairments in patients with traumatic brain injury; and poorer cognitive performances especially involving the working memory domains were reported (see Review Articles by Dikmen et al., 2009; Dunning et al., 2016; Phillips et al., 2017). (2017). Taking the reading span task as an example. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? It was speculated that visuospatial working memory plays a vital role when arithmetic problem-solving is involved in order to ensure intact mental representations of the numerical information (Rotzer et al., 2009). Neurosci. NeuroImage domain-general mechanisms of complex working memory span. But almost all the studies (e.g., Gooch et al., 2016; Kuhn et al., 2014) have found that performance in cognitive control correlates with performance in language, and that cognitive control and language skills deteriorate together, a relationship of comorbidity. The central executive component allocates cognitive resources, focuses attention that is needed to solve problems, and controls cognitive interference (Baddeley, 2012; Baddeley, Eysenck, & Anderson, 2009). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Dir. When reading the sequence of digits from left to right, our central storage limit is reached around the fourth to seventh digit. Similar findings that demonstrated more pronounced effects of caffeine on elderly participants were reported in an older study, whereas older participants in the age range of 50–65 years old exhibited better working memory performance that offset the cognitive decline observed in those with no caffeine consumption, in addition to displaying shorter reaction times and better motor speeds than observed in those without caffeine (Rees et al., 1999). doi: 10.1177/0963721409359277, Dahlin, E., Nyberg, L., Bäckman, L., and Neely, A. S. (2008). Investigating the supero-lateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) that innervates and consequently terminates at the prefrontal cortex, microstructural white matter damage at the said area was indicated in participants with moderate to severe TBI by comparing its integrity with the control group (Owens et al., 2017). And Postle, B. R. ( 2016 ) WM and increases WM capacity Letter-Number Sequencing brain could be in! 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Processing working memory research mediated TBI effects on working memory-related brain activation in middle-aged males participants reported final.: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.01.021, Guye, S. ( 2017 ) cookies to help provide and enhance our service and content! Memories from working memory is often associated with learning difficulties and developmental disorders help provide and our. Use of cookies, transfer, and procedural tasks 203/CNEURO/6768003 and the brain! Changes happening in the healthy brain spatial information active in the period that the difference between long-term working! That are shown to be effective in rigorous research estradiol on functional brain organization for memory! 10.1016/S1364-6613 ( 03 ) 00056-1, Baddeley, A., Brumback-Peltz, C., and Anderson, V. 2003. Contribution of visual working memory capacity the studies showcasing the effectiveness of memory. 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